Fainting and Blood Pressure

A while ago, my friend asked me if blood pressure had anything to do with fainting. I said, “Yup”, and she said, “Explain it to me later”. So welcome to Later, everyone!

What is fainting?

For the people who don’t know, fainting is the loss of consciousness due to a lack of oxygen reaching the brain. Fainting also has a medical name, Syncope. It’s pronounced sing-co-pee (English is a strange language).

Why do people faint?

Biologically, people faint because they experience low blood pressure (though, there can be other cardiovascular problems). This isn’t necessarily of medical concern; you can have low blood pressure for several reasons. For example, if you are dehydrated, you have less fluid in your blood stream. This means that you have a lower blood volume in your blood vessels, which results in a lower blood pressure.

When you have low blood pressure, your blood vessels lose their tone and are unable to deliver blood cells to your brain as efficiently as it would if you had normal blood pressure. This results in your brain receiving less oxygen. The lack of oxygen is what makes you lose consciousness, since oxygen is required for the sustenance of your brain cells, not to mention your other cells!

So what can I do?

Stay hydrated folks! That’s one of the simplest ways to maintain a normal blood pressure 🙂

And that’s how blood pressure is related to fainting!

 

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Caffeine

I am just coming down from that finals rush that us university students are all so accustomed to. Those long nights of studying and early mornings to keep studying – it gets tiring. A lot of students have a particular molecule to thank for getting them through those long days: caffeine. Whether it’s coffee, or energy drinks, students can be seen anywhere on campus chugging down these caffeinated substances. But how does this particular substance work to keep the students active and awake?

What is Caffeine?

Caffeine is a purine alkaloid, which is a particular type of chemical compound. It is found organically in Coffea arabica and Camellia sinsensis.

Coffea arabicaCamellia sinsensis

Coffea arabica is the source of coffee, while Camellia sinsensis is the source of tea.

How does caffeine affect our systems?

Caffeine can be completely absorbed by the stomach and small intestine within 45 minutes, and it takes around 3 to 4 hours just to remove half of the consumed caffeine from your system.

Caffeine stimulates our central nervous system (CNS), which is composed of our brain and spinal cord. By stimulating the CNS, the caffeine molecules fight against drowsiness and helps keep you alert. It does all of this by preventing a nucleoside, named adenosine (which is found in our DNA!), from binding to its receptors in the brain.

Adenosine usually suppresses the CNS when it binds to its receptors; this leads to general drowsiness. When caffeine binds these receptors, adenosine can no longer interact with the brain receptors which leads to a decrease in drowsiness (or increase in alertness!). Another result of caffeine binding these receptors is the stimulation of other neurotransmitters that also lead to an increase in your ability to concentrate and stay awake. These neurotransmitters include: norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine and serotonin (which will be explored later).

An interesting fact about caffeine is that its half life,which is the time it takes to remove half of the consumed substance from your system, can be shortened by one’s smoking. So if you’re smoking, you’re going to need more caffeine than the average person to get relatively the same jolt of energy.

And that’s a brief summary of caffeine and its effects! Now you know how exactly caffeine works to become your savior through those long nights. Thanks caffeine, on behalf of all of us sleep-deprived students.

Hangovers – Headaches

Hello Children, it’s time to learn about one of the many upsetting effects of alcohol. Okay, I know most of you are probably people actually going through a hangover and you want to know why this is happening to you… I mean, you’re a good person (probably). So why oh why is last night hurting you today?

What is a hangover?

Unlike the movie ‘The Hangover’, where the characters pretty much go on an adventure the day after a rowdy night with seemingly no physical repercussions other than a couple tattoos, a hangover would probably make you want to sleep for a whole day.

A hangover, formally called a veisalgia, is basically the umbrella term for the after effects of drinking. It includes headaches, body aches, tiredness, weakness, thirst, nausea (sometimes vomiting), general stomach pain, diarrhea, and a slew of other symptoms like depression, vertigo and decreased attention.

Of course, you won’t likely experience all of these symptoms at once! There are different hangovers and they depend on how much you drink and how well your body is at detoxifying the alcohol. If you drink a lot and your body detoxifies alcohol at a very slow rate, then you will likely have an extremely bad hangover (unless you take some precautions – which will be explored in a later post!).

Why do we get hangovers?

If you recall last week’s post, where we discussed the effects of alcohol on the body, alcohol inhibits a hormone. This hormone, the antidiuretic hormone, is responsible for the reabsorption of water by your body’s kidneys. Without the activity of this hormone, the water that would have been retained by your body goes straight to your bladder and is then excreted. This loss of water results in your body becoming dehydrated, which leads to you getting a hangover.

Headaches and Hangovers, oh my!

Even though you are consuming a form of liquid, the amount of alcohol consumed is not as much as the amount of water lost during urination. This dehydrated state is what causes your headache, as the organs in your body are trying to their best to retain as much water as possible – even if that means stealing water from your brain. This results in your brain shrinking in size, making the membranes that connect your brain to your skull stretch – thus your headache. Crazy, huh?

Next week, we’ll talk about the relationship between Electrolytes and Hangovers.

Alcohol – Effects on the Body

I’m a university student and you can bet that I’ve seen a lot of people under the influence of alcohol. They can be loud, giggly, emotional, and sometimes really tired.

I wanted to see just what effects alcohol has on our bodies, so posts about the different effects of alcohol will be popping up every now and then. For now, I thought it would be cool to see the list of effects alcohol has been found to have on our bodies.

Some of these effects are real extremes, so take them lightly. 🙂

List of the effects of alcohol on our body

Short-term effects

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Makes you urinate more frequently (stay tuned, we’ll be talking about this one shortly!)
  • Flushed appearance
  • Reduced cognitive and motor skills(which is why you shouldn’t drink and drive!)
  • Loss of inhibitions and more confidence
  • Blurred vision (aka beer goggles) and slurred speech
  • Intense moods, e.g. aggression, elation, depression
  • Headache
  • Blackouts
  • Alcohol poisoning, which is really lethal

Diseases/conditions (in extreme cases!!!)

  • Can lead to the development of heart disease after long-term excessive use.
  • Potential cancer developing effects
  • May cause pancreatitis, which can lead to the development of diabetes
  • Liver disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Depression and/or anxiety
  • Weakened immune system
  • Anemia

Effects on our reproductive systems?!

  • Linked to damaging fertility (extreme case)
  • Small amounts of alcohol can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle
  • Alcohol can reduce the amount of testosterone a man produces
  • May affect the quality of a man’s sperm

And this is just a sampling of all of the effects of alcohol. In a couple of weeks, we’ll be talking about urination so that we can get to explore the effects of alcohol on it the week after :).

So, take it easy with eggnog for now, ladies and gents. No need to binge drink, it may just lead to some unhealthy effects!

I will be on hiatus until the first week of January, due to the holidays but Happy holidays and Happy New Year 🙂 Stay safe!

Pins and Needles aka Parasthesia

Nowadays, it seems like my legs get a lot more sleep than I do. “#firstworldproblems, #universitywoes”. But, really, why do our limbs fall asleep and why do they tingle us so uncomfortably when they do?

Pins and Needles

The sleeping of our limbs, also termed ‘parasthesia’, is the result of our nerves acting abnormally due to an increased pressure on them for a prolonged period of time. Our nerves essentially act as little messengers between our limbs and our brain. So this prolonged pressure on the nerves results in the loss of communication between the limbs and our brain.

There is also a prolonged pressure placed on our blood vessels, which results in our nerves not receiving enough oxygen or nutrients.

So, in response to this pressure, nerves, much like how we respond to pressure, can react in to different ways: They can either become unresponsive and wait until the pressure has been removed, or they will essentially begin to spaz out and rapidly send signals in hopes of sending them in the right direction.

Now, the latter causes a problem because we have a lot of different nerves feeding our brains with a lot of different information: some inform us about temperature, some others about pressure on our skin and so forth. So when the nerves start spastically sending signals, the brain is unable to fully interpret what is happening and gets a mix of signals about warmth and numb sensations as well as conflicting signals about being cold and tingling sensations. This is why our sleeping limbs are described as having pins and needles. The mix of signals results in a mix of sensations, including an odd duality of numbness and tingling.

How to wake up your limbs

Many people try to hit their limbs that have fallen asleep. That doesn’t really do anything, unfortunately. The best we can do is to change our positions to remove the pressure and wait for the blood flow and nerve responses to return to normal.

And that’s all there is to know about pins and needles. Ironically, my foot has now fallen asleep so it’s time to practice what I preach.

 

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