Hangovers – Headaches

Hello Children, it’s time to learn about one of the many upsetting effects of alcohol. Okay, I know most of you are probably people actually going through a hangover and you want to know why this is happening to you… I mean, you’re a good person (probably). So why oh why is last night hurting you today?

What is a hangover?

Unlike the movie ‘The Hangover’, where the characters pretty much go on an adventure the day after a rowdy night with seemingly no physical repercussions other than a couple tattoos, a hangover would probably make you want to sleep for a whole day.

A hangover, formally called a veisalgia, is basically the umbrella term for the after effects of drinking. It includes headaches, body aches, tiredness, weakness, thirst, nausea (sometimes vomiting), general stomach pain, diarrhea, and a slew of other symptoms like depression, vertigo and decreased attention.

Of course, you won’t likely experience all of these symptoms at once! There are different hangovers and they depend on how much you drink and how well your body is at detoxifying the alcohol. If you drink a lot and your body detoxifies alcohol at a very slow rate, then you will likely have an extremely bad hangover (unless you take some precautions – which will be explored in a later post!).

Why do we get hangovers?

If you recall last week’s post, where we discussed the effects of alcohol on the body, alcohol inhibits a hormone. This hormone, the antidiuretic hormone, is responsible for the reabsorption of water by your body’s kidneys. Without the activity of this hormone, the water that would have been retained by your body goes straight to your bladder and is then excreted. This loss of water results in your body becoming dehydrated, which leads to you getting a hangover.

Headaches and Hangovers, oh my!

Even though you are consuming a form of liquid, the amount of alcohol consumed is not as much as the amount of water lost during urination. This dehydrated state is what causes your headache, as the organs in your body are trying to their best to retain as much water as possible – even if that means stealing water from your brain. This results in your brain shrinking in size, making the membranes that connect your brain to your skull stretch – thus your headache. Crazy, huh?

Next week, we’ll talk about the relationship between Electrolytes and Hangovers.

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Alcohol – Effects on the Body

I’m a university student and you can bet that I’ve seen a lot of people under the influence of alcohol. They can be loud, giggly, emotional, and sometimes really tired.

I wanted to see just what effects alcohol has on our bodies, so posts about the different effects of alcohol will be popping up every now and then. For now, I thought it would be cool to see the list of effects alcohol has been found to have on our bodies.

Some of these effects are real extremes, so take them lightly. 🙂

List of the effects of alcohol on our body

Short-term effects

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Makes you urinate more frequently (stay tuned, we’ll be talking about this one shortly!)
  • Flushed appearance
  • Reduced cognitive and motor skills(which is why you shouldn’t drink and drive!)
  • Loss of inhibitions and more confidence
  • Blurred vision (aka beer goggles) and slurred speech
  • Intense moods, e.g. aggression, elation, depression
  • Headache
  • Blackouts
  • Alcohol poisoning, which is really lethal

Diseases/conditions (in extreme cases!!!)

  • Can lead to the development of heart disease after long-term excessive use.
  • Potential cancer developing effects
  • May cause pancreatitis, which can lead to the development of diabetes
  • Liver disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Depression and/or anxiety
  • Weakened immune system
  • Anemia

Effects on our reproductive systems?!

  • Linked to damaging fertility (extreme case)
  • Small amounts of alcohol can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle
  • Alcohol can reduce the amount of testosterone a man produces
  • May affect the quality of a man’s sperm

And this is just a sampling of all of the effects of alcohol. In a couple of weeks, we’ll be talking about urination so that we can get to explore the effects of alcohol on it the week after :).

So, take it easy with eggnog for now, ladies and gents. No need to binge drink, it may just lead to some unhealthy effects!

I will be on hiatus until the first week of January, due to the holidays but Happy holidays and Happy New Year 🙂 Stay safe!

Electrolytes

Whenever you’re dehydrated, or experiencing the stomach flu or diarrhea, you hear people telling you the importance of restoring your body’s electrolytes. But what are electrolytes and where can you obtain them from?

What are electrolytes?

Electrolytes, also known as minerals, are ions that occur in your body.

Okay… what’s an ion?

Chemistry time, folks!

Each chemical atom or molecule has a specific number of negatively charged particles, electrons, associated with it. When the number of electrons of the atom/molecule deviates from  its usual number, it becomes charged. It can either be charged positively by losing electrons, or negatively by gaining electrons. Any charged atom or molecule is known as an ion.

Examples of minerals that occur in our bodies are:

  • sodium (Na+)
  • potassium (K+)
  • chloride (Cl)
  • calcium (Ca2+)
  • magnesium (Mg2+)
  • bicarbonate (HCO3)
  • phosphate (PO42-)
  • sulfate (SO42-)**

Why do we need electrolytes?

Electrolytes are essential for our motor skills as well as other nerve impulses and muscle contractions (including the beating of your heart!). They also affect how much water is in your body, and the acidity of your blood. They are important because they carry electric charges.

Replenishing electrolytes

Dehydration, which can result from the stomach flu, diarrhea and even profuse sweating, represents a state where a lot water has been lost. Electrolytes accompany this mass of water that leaves our systems, which is why we are told to replenish them. Without electrolytes, we are slower and weaker because they are so important to our biological processes.

People usually recommend drinking sports drinks to raise the level of electrolytes (and fluids) in your system when you are dehydrated, but this really does depend on why you are dehydrated! If you are dehydrated as a result of exercising, then a sports drink is fine. For cases where you are dehydrated as a result of the stomach flu or diarrhea, it’s suggested that you drink an oral electrolyte solution such as Pedialyte® in place of a sports drink.

Sports drinks have a high concentration of sugars, which will irritate you when you have a stomach flu and worsen diarrhea as it will draw more water into your bowels. Pedialyte doesn’t use sucrose, which is the sugar found in all Gatorade® products and most Powerade® products. Gatorade is strictly a sports drink because of its sucrose levels, but I’m going to hand it to Powerade because they’ve introduced Powerade Zero which has no sugar whatsoever, which makes it a great candidate for an electrolyte replenisher.

All of these drinks typically focus on sodium and potassium as electrolytes. Why are these two electrolytes so important? That’s a story for another day.

Lactose Intolerance and Diarrhea

I know, I know. Oy with the poo already! But I swear, this is the last one (for now). Since I’ve talked about diarrhea due to gastrointestinal infections, I should probably explain why some people get diarrhea as a symptom to lactose intolerance.

Difference between diarrhea caused by GI infections and Lactose Intolerance

Last week, we learned that our bodies don’t absorb the water we ingest when there is a GI infection, which means we don’t gain any water in our systems. In contrast to diarrhea as a result of an infection, water is actually taken from the body and enters the intestinal tract; that means we actually lose water we already had. But why?

Diarrhea as a symptom of Lactose Intolerance

When you have lactose intolerance, you have a decreased efficiency in the digestion of lactose. While there are bacteria in your intestinal tract that are capable of digesting the lactose, they may not be able to digest all of the lactose you’ve consumed. This means that there is a concentration of lactose in your intestines that has not been taken up by your body. This is where the water loss comes in.

Remember that pesky biology lesson about Osmosis? Well, it’s actually applicable here (thank you, high school!). So, you have a high concentration of sugar (lactose) in your intestines and a lower concentration in the external environment of the intestine. Water likes to do this thing where it moves from areas of low concentrations of solutes, like sugars, to higher concentrations of solutes. Basically, water is a gold-digger and the more solutes an area has, the richer it is. So the water flows into your intestinal tract until the concentration of the sugars in your intestine is roughly the same as the concentration of the sugars outside of the intestine (this is called an equilibrium). This increased volume of water in your intestines causes a watery stool (aka diarrhea!).

Always remember that it’s important to stay hydrated anytime you have diarrhea.

Lesson here is: don’t ingest crazy amounts of lactose, especially if you’re lactose intolerant… unless you’re taking lactase pills. If you’re taking lactase pills, you can eat all the poutine that your heart allows! (That reminds me, happy belated Canada day!)

Diarrhea

Aw, poo! Is diarrhea getting you down? Well, seeing as I’ve mentioned diarrhea a few times, I thought it was about time that I explored the topic. So let’s find out what diarrhea is and why we get it. You may be surprised to find out just how great diarrhea can be, even though it’s definitely not pleasant in the moment.

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea is runny or watery bowel movements (poo), where there is the characteristic loss in the form of the stool.

What causes diarrhea?

Diarrhea is usually an immune response indicating that you are suffering a gastrointestinal infection that has been caused by an endoparasite. In other words, diarrhea is the symptom of an infection in your gastrointestinal tract.

These infections are usually highly contagious as it can be spread via dirty hands contaminating food or water. These hands could have been changing a diaper or a pet’s fecal matter or simply cleaning the toilet but not washed properly (c’mon guys, just wash your hands!).  Kids usually get diarrhea frequently due to their tendency of putting their fingers into their mouths.

When we suffer from gastrointestinal infections, our bodies want to excrete the ingested endoparasite that is causing the infection out as quickly as possible. In order to do this, the muscles in your digestive tract contract at a faster rate than usual. This can cause a sharp pain in your abdomen.

These fast contractions also prevents your intestines from absorbing water from your waste; this means that the water in your intestinal tract leaves the body with your fecal matter instead of being retained in your body. This is why you get dehydrated when you have diarrhea, which is why you need to drink a lot of water and electrolyte-containing drinks (as you lose electrolytes and nutrients with your stool too).

Final thoughts

Okay, so basically diarrhea is great in that it helps us recover from an infection faster by excreting the endoparasites once it’s been detected by our immune system.

So while it’s a pain to deal with, it really teaches us the importance of hygiene. If we wash our hands properly and sanitize our hands and other items, there will be less of a risk of getting an infection. However, there are some endoparasites that won’t be phased by this, so diarrhea will be inevitable. The best thing you can do to recover from this infection is to stay hydrated. Your immune system is taking care of you, don’t you fret.

Without diarrhea, your body could become the new home to awful endoparasites. So just remember, it’s for the greater good.

Stomach Flu aka Gastroenteritis

There seems to be a bug going around, causing everyone to be at home, sick to their stomachs – literally. There are lot of bugs in this world, but the stomach flu, or gastroenteritis, is not caused by any one of them. So what does cause the stomach flu and why is it so easy for us to catch it? Let’s first look at the difference between the stomach flu and what the term ‘flu’ is commonly associated with now-a-days.

Stomach Flu vs. the Flu

Sounds ridiculous that the two should be different considering they both have the same terms, but the stomach flu and what we refer to as “the flu” are completely different conditions. The flu refers to Influenza viruses, which we talked about last week. The stomach flu, however, can be caused by viruses, bacteria or other endoparasites. Want to know more? Here’s a list of the specific organisms that can cause the stomach flu.

So, what does ‘Gastroenteritis’ mean?

Gastro is the Greek word for ‘stomach’, while Entero is Greek for ‘intestine’. The suffix -itis indicates that the disease  is characterized by an inflammation of some sort. Therefore, Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the stomach and the intestine, the inflammation being caused by your immune system in response to the harmful organism. This inflammation of the stomach and intestine can lead to digestive problems, which is why you experience diarrhea or vomit when you have the stomach flu.

How do we get infected?

Each endoparasite works differently. The viruses that cause the stomach flu act in the same manner as influenza. Bacteria are able to use the nutrients we have in our bodies to sustain themselves; the parasitic bacteria, however, release their waste products from the digestion of the nutrients into our bodies. Some of these waste products can be toxic to our body, which causes our immune system to react via the inflammation of  the stomach and intestine.

What are some symptoms?

The symptoms are all signs of your immune system trying to stop this infection from further harming you. You won’t always experience all of the symptoms, it really depends on how dangerous the endoparasite is and how long it takes your immune system to recognize it.

Symptoms usually show around 1-2 days after being infected.

Here are some common symptoms:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Cramps
  • Slight to noticeable fever (of 37.2°C /99°F or higher)

Viral infections can last a couple of days, while bacterial infections can last for a week, sometimes more depending on the severity of the infection.

Tips for coping

REHYDRATE: You’re going to lose a lot of water from vomiting and/or diarrhea. For children, they should be given drinks with electrolytes in them. Adults tend to have more electrolytes, so they can cope with drinking sports beverages like Gatorade or Powerade. Water can be a little helpful for the purposes of rehydration but you also lose a lot of electrolytes and minerals when you vomit and/or suffer from diarrhea, so sports beverages are the better alternative. Just make sure you drink in small amounts; large amounts can lead to vomiting.

SUGAR=NO-NO: Sugar is just going to irritate you more and make your diarrhea worse. It will not help replace the minerals you lose. So put those juice boxes away and stay away from your soda/pop!

EATING: Eating small amounts of food is suggested if you’re not vomiting excessively. Some foods you can eat are bread, cereal, vegetables, potatoes or apples. Stay away from dairy products for a while and just remember to take it easy on your stomach!

MEDICAL ATTENTION: Unlike the Flu, the Stomach flu doesn’t have any vaccines. You just have to wait it out and let your body work against the infection, but make sure you see your doctor so they remain informed!

A.D.A.M., Inc. 2013. Viral gastroenteritis. PubMed Health. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001298/&gt;. March 14, 2013.

Harding, A. 2013. 13 Things you should know about the stomach flu. Health.com. <http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20568435_last,00.html>. March 14, 2013.

Gardiner, J. 2006. Gastroenteritis (stomach flu) symptoms, causes, treatments. WebMD.com. <http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/gastroenteritis&gt; March 14, 2013.